Those Santee who established the colony at Flandreau were Christian Indians who homesteaded their lands pursuant to article VI of the Fort Laramie treaty of 1868. Article VI provided that Indians could take homesteads and become citizens and still retain the benefits provided to them by the treaty. Among the early settlers were Jacob Eastman (father of Charles Eastman) and Thomas Wakeman (the son of Little Crow, a leader of the Minnesota Uprising).
Today the open land base of the Flandreau Agency is 2,356 acres in Moody County in southeastern South Dakota near the Minnesota border. Flandreau Indian boarding school is still maintained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.