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American Indian Conflicts
Brooks Camp
General Brooks Camp near Pine Ridge, January 17, 1891 (Grabill)

Collections Publications Maps Vertical Files

Collections
Anderson, John (P184-P 185)
            Photograph Collection, 1886-1902. Collection includes Crook Treaty Council, 1889; Fort Niobrara, 1886; Indian soldiers of Co. I 16th Infantry at Rosebud, 1890; council held to persuade Indians to sell Tripp and Gregory Counties, 1892; a funeral procession at Fort Niobrara; negro Infantry at Fort Niobrara, 1902; officers at Fort Niobrara, 1902; interior of the canteen at Fort Niobrara, 1886; and a regiment camped near Fort Niobrara, 1885.

Battle of Little Big Horn (H75-266)
            Papers, 1877-1953. The collection contains various secondary source materials such as maps, letters, pamphlets and a newspaper account. Box 3544B

Brennan, John R. (H72-002)
              Family Papers, 1882-1972. Major Brennan was the Superintendent of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.  This collection primarily contains correspondence, diaries, clippings and financial records pertaining to his role in this capacity as well as his ownership of Hotel Harney in Rapid City. Folder 1 of this collection contains a typescript copy of the 1877 Act of Congress to ratify the treaty of 1876. Box 3344B

Burnside, Raymond (H88-026)
            Manuscript, 1929. This manuscript describes the Battle of Slim Buttes and the battlefield when Burnside first visited it.  He was instrumental in making the battlefield known in South Dakota.  Box 3749B

Daughters of the American Revolution, Daniel Newcomb Chapter, Yankton (H41-001)
            Radio Scripts, 1938-1941. This collection consists of radio scripts of programs that were broadcast over WNAX in Yankton. The program was sponsored by the Daniel Newcomb Chapter of the DAR. Folder 3 contains a radio script entitled, “The First Dakota Cavalry, Dakota’s First Soldiers,” by Harry A. Robinson, January 14, 1940.  

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DeWitt, Louis (H75-414)
            Diary and newspaper articles, 1877 and 1917.  DeWitt was an Indian Scout for General E.A. Carlington and he played a part in the surrender of the Cheyenne at Chardon Creek, Nebraska in 1878.  This collection contains a newspaper article from the Pierre Capital Journal about the event.  The collection also includes DeWitt’s diary from April 26 to August 10, 1877 describing army life on a trip up the Yellowstone River. Box 3553A

Doud, George W. (H78-053)
            Diary, September 13, 1862-October 15, 1864.  Doud was a private in Company F of the 8th Minnesota Infantry. His diary is a typescript copy that describes events during the Sioux Uprising in 1862. He wrote about military life, forts, social life and customs, and the atrocities of the uprising.    Box 3573A

Film Collection (H2002-044) RESTRICTED
            First in Battle: The True Story of the 7th Cavalry, 2002.  This is a vhs video that was produced by Greystone Communications for use on the History Channel and describes the military actions of the 7th Cavalry in American military history. Several of the South Dakota State Archives photographs were used in this film.

General Photo Collection (P104)
            Military. Image of Custer’s horse Comanche.

Gibbon, John (H75-312)
            Articles, 1877. General John Gibbon wrote two articles that appeared in the American Catholic Quarterly Review in 1877.  The first article describes the Sioux War of 1876 and the Battle of the Little Big Horn, while the second article describes the pursuit of Sitting Bull.  Box 3549A
 
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Gilbert, R.J. (H82-045)
            Manuscript, 1951. The manuscript entitled “The Battle of the Little Big Horn: Reno’s Contribution to Disaster,” was written by Gilbert while he was a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy in 1951. Box 3539

Grabill, John C. (P191)
            Photograph Collection, 1876-1891. In October of 1886, Grabill set up a studio in Sturgis, Dakota Territory, where he worked until early 1891. His most memorable photographs relating to Indian people are those taken at Pine Ridge Agency shortly after the Wounded Knee massacre in December 1890. Images in this collection include Company O, 3rd U.S. Infantry posed to take aim, 1890; Company C. 3rd U.S. Infantry; General Miles & staff viewing the largest Indian camp in the U.S. near Pine Ridge, 1891; General Taylor and 70 Indian scouts, 1891; U.S. officials viewing hostile Indian camp; Comanche, 1876; Paul Wernert & gunners of Battery E, 1st Artillery, 1891; officers of the 9th Cavalry,1891; Fighting 7th Officers formal portrait; Fort Meade, 1888; “Grand Review” of U.S. troops; officers quarters at Fort Meade, 1889; and Fort Meade with Bear Butte in the distance, 1888.

Ives, Francis Joseph (H84-038)
Notebook, 1890.This consists of a notebook that was kept by Captain Francis Joseph Ives, Assistant Surgeon, United States Army in South Dakota in 1890.  The notebook is a register of Indians that were injured at Wounded Knee and treated by Captain Ives. Box 3616B

Kidder, Jefferson Parish (H1-001)
            Papers, 1859-1868. Kidder served as associate justice of the Dakota Territorial Supreme Court from 1865 to 1876 at which time he became a United States Congressman. In 1880 he returned to South Dakota and resumed his position of associate justice. His papers contain biographical material, correspondence, political material, and papers concerning Lyman S. Kidder. Lyman, Jefferson’s son, served with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry in Dakota Territory. Lyman was killed by Indians near Beaver Creek, Kansas in 1867 and this collection contains correspondence by family about Lyman’s death as well as attempts by Jefferson to learn more about the incident. Also included are a list of the other men killed in this battle, a sketch of the country covered by the 7th U.S. Cavalry, and newspaper articles. Box 3649A and MD 63

McCloud, J.B. (H76-015)
            Manuscript, n.d. J.B. McCloud, a rancher in Custer County, joined the Spring Creek Volunteers in 1890 during the Messiah War. This manuscript contains the activities the militia was involved in, comments on the Ghost Dance, and the cause of the Sioux troubles in 1890. McCloud and one of the militia companies quartered on his ranch also participated in a fight with the Sioux on his land. Box 3564A

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Maynadier, Col. Henry E. (H75-445)
            Reports, 1866.  This collection consists of two reports to the U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs regarding Maynadier’s efforts to seek peace with the Sioux. Box 3650A

Morrow, Stanley J. (P193-198)
            Photograph Collection. Includes images of graves on Custer’s battlefield; bones gathered on Custer’s hill before burial; Lt. Crittenden’s grave; supposed grave of Lt. Sturgis; bluff where some of Custer’s men were driven into the Little Horn; Captain Sanderson’s camp; and the monument on Custer’s battlefield.

North, Luther (H75-190)
            Letters and Manuscript, 1923-1924. Captain Luther North commanded a company of Pawnee Scouts from 1864 to 1877 mostly in the Nebraska area. This collection contains four letters. The letters describe the Battle of Summit Springs and the death of Tall Bull. Box 3543B

Robinson, Doane (MF 481)
            Article from Literary Digest, September 17, 1921. Microfilmed copy with information on the Custer Battle and Rain In The Face. MF 3240

Smith, Henry P. (H2005-052)
            Wounded Knee Diary, October 1889-May 1891. Henry P. Smith was a rancher who lived on the White River across from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. His entries include ranch and homestead events, the winter of 1890-1891, literary quotes, and the events at Wounded Knee. 6653
 
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South Dakota National Guard (H74-028)
            Papers, 1885-1981.  The Spring Creek Volunteers were a militia that was organized by Merritt H. Day in the southern Black Hills during the Messiah War of 1890-1891.  The South Dakota National Guard papers contain two folders that pertain to this topic.  The folders contain the rosters of the two Spring Creek companies and material regarding the efforts of Congressman Francis H. Case to obtain a pension for the Spring Creek Volunteers in 1940 and 1941. Boxes 3657A-3672; 7033A-7034B; FB 36-38; FB 57-58; MD 67 and 106

South Dakota National Guard (MF 40)
            Rosters, 1885-1917. This includes a listing of the names, ranks, dates and locations of appointments for commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers. It also includes a register of men who transferred, were discharged or died. The register of enlisted men has an index and includes the name, rank, date of enlistment, age, occupation, address, discharge date and remarks. MF 1765

United States. War Department (H75-560)
            Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians within the Military Division of the Missouri from 1868 to 1882. Lieutenant General P.H. Sheridan Commanding, 1882. This includes a narrative of activities as well as a break-down of the military divisions with commanders’ names, dates, and military posts.  MF1913

United States. War Department (H75-722)
           Special Report Relative to the Sioux Campaign, 1890-1891. Report of Colonel E. A. Carr, 6th Cavalry. Also includes returns for November 1890 through January 1891. MF 1938

United States. War Department. Adjutant General’s Office (MF 13)
            Annual Report, October 1, 1879.  Department of Dakota annual report detailing troop locations and activities including action against a group of hostile Cheyenne Indians and the capture of Little Wolf. MF 1591

Publications 
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Archer, Jules. Indian foe, Indian friend; the story of William S. Harney. [New York]: Crowell-Collier Press, [1970]

Bailey, John W. Pacifying the plains : General Alfred Terry and the decline of the Sioux, 1866-1890. Westport , C.T. : Greenwood Press, 1979.

Barnitz, Albert. Life in Custer’s cavalry : diaries and letters of Albert and Jennie Barnitz, 1867-1868. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1977.

Battles and skirmishes of the Great Sioux War, 1876-1877 : the military view. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c1993.

Beck, Paul Norman. Soldier, settler, and Sioux : Fort Ridgely and the Minnesota River Valley, 1853-1867. Sioux Falls, S.D. : Center for Western Studies, Augustana College, 2000

Bland, Thomas Augustus. A brief history of the late military invasion of the home of the Sioux. Washington DC: National Indian Defense Association, 1891.

Bruce, Robert. The fighting Norths and Pawnee scouts; narratives and reminiscences of military service on the old frontier. Lincoln, NE : 1932.

Capron, Thaddeus Hurlbut. Marching with General Crook, or, the Big Horn and Yellowstone expedition against hostile Indians in the summer of 1876 : including the battle of the Rosebud and the Black Hills march; being the diary of Thaddeus Hurlbut Capron. Douglas, A.K. : Cheechko Press, c 1983.

Cox, John E. Five years in the United States Army. New York: Sol Lewis, 1973

Cox, Kurt Hamilton. Custer and his commands : From West Point to Little Bighorn. London: Greengill Books;Mechanicsburg, PA : Stackpole Books, 1999.

Custer, Elizabeth. Following the guidon. New York : Harper & Brothers, 1890.

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Custer, Elizabeth (Bacon). Tenting on the plains; or General Custer in Kansas and Texas.  New York: C.L. Webster, 1887.

Custer, George Armstrong. Nomad : George A. Custer in Turf, field and farm. Austin : University of Texas Press, 1980.

--------Boots and saddles; or Life in Dakota with General Custer. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, [1961].

Foreman, Grant. Advancing the frontier, 1830-1860. Norman : The University of Oklahoma Press, 1933.

Fougera, Katherine Gibson. With Custer’s cavalry. Caldwell, I.D.: The Caxton Printers, 1940.

Fowler, Arlen L. The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891. Westport C.T. : Greenwood Pub. Corp., [1971].

Freeman, Henry Blanchard. The Freeman Journal : the infantry in the Sioux Campaign of 1876. San Rafael, CA:  Presidio Press, 1977.

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Frost, Lawrence A. Arrest General Custer. Monroe, MI : Garry Owen Publishers, 1987.

Hafen, LeRoy Reuben. Relations with the Indians of the Plains, 1857-1861; a documentary account of the military campaigns, and negotiations of Indian agents, with reports and journals of P.G. Lowe, R.M. Peck, J.E. B. Stuart, S.D. Sturgis, and other official papers. Glendale, C.A. : Arthur H. Clark Co., 1959.

Hedren, Paul L. Traveler’s guide to the Great Sioux War : the battlefields, forts, and related sites of America’s greatest Indian war. Helena : Montana Historical Society Press, 1996.

Heitman, Francis Bernard. Historical Register and dictionary of the United States Army, from its organization,    September 29, 1789 to March 2, 1903. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1903.

Hickman, George. History of Marshall County, Dakota : its topography and natural history and sketches of pioneer settlers, with the names of actual settlers, where they are from and where they live : also, the military and Sisseton reservations. Britton, Dakota : J.W. Banbury, 1886.

Indian War of the Outbreak.. Wi-Iyohi. South Dakota State Historical Society: Pierre, S.D.

Indian Wars of Minnesota. Wi-Iyohi. South Dakota State Historical Society: Pierre, S.D.

Ingham, Harvey. The Northern border brigade; a story of military beginnings. [Des Moines, I.A. : s.n., 1926]

Journals of the military expedition of Major General John Sullivan against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779; with records of
centennial celebrations.
Auburn, NY : Knapp, Peck & Thomson, 1887.

King, Charles. A soldier’s secret :  a story of the Sioux War of 1890, and an army Portia, two novels. Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott Co., 1909

Lakota recollections of the Custer fight : new sources of Indian-military history. Spokane, WA : A.H. Clark Co., 1991.

Lauderdale, John Vance. After Wounded Knee. East Lansing : Michigan State University Press, 1996.

Leckie, Shirley A. Elizabeth Bacon Custer and the making of a myth. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

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Leckie, William H. The military conquest of the southern plains. Norman : University of Oklahoma Pres, [1963].

Langellier, J. Phillip. Fix bayonets : the U.S. infantry from the American Civil War to the surrender of Japan. London: Greenhill Books; Mechanicsburg, PA : Stackpole Books, 1998

McDermott, John D. Gold Rush: the Black Hills story. Pierre, S.D. : South Dakota State Historical Society Press, 2001.

Miles, Nelson Appleton. Nelson A. Miles, a documentary biography of his military career, 1861-1903.Glendale, C.A.: A.H. Clark Co., 1985

Miles, Nelson Appleton. Serving the Republic; memoirs of the civil and military life of Nelson A. Miles. New York: Harper and brothers, 1911.

Mills, Anson. My story, by Anson Mills. Washington D.C.: The author, 1918.

Mulford, Ami Frank. Fighting Indians in the Seventh United State Cavalry, Custer’s favorite regiment. Corning,  NY : P.L. Mulford, [1879].

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Nichols, Roger L. General Henry Atkinson, a western military career. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, [1965]

Ostrander, Alson Bowles. An army boy of the sixties; a story of the plains. Yonkers-on-Hudson NY : World Book Company, 1924.

Our Indian Question. New York: Military Institution of the U.S., 1881.

Panzeri, Peter F. Little Big Horn 1876 : Custer’s last stand. London : Reed International Books, 1995.

Pratt, Richard Henry. Battlefield and classroom : four decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904. Lincoln :University of Nebraska Press, 1964.

Prucha, Francis Paul. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

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Reavis, Legan Uriah. The life and military services of General William Selby Harney. Saint Louis, MO : Bryan,Band & Co., 1878.

Record of engagement with hostile Indians within the Military division of the Missouri, from 1868 to 1882, Lieutenant General P.H. Sheridan, commanding. Washington DC : Government Printing Office, 1882.

Rickey, Don. Forty miles a day on beans and hay ; the enlisted soldier fighting the Indian Wars. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, [1963].

Rogers, Fred Blackburn. Soldiers of the overland; being some account of the services of General Patrick Edward Conner and his volunteers in the old west. San Francisco : The Grabhorn Press, 1938.

Russell, Don. Campaigning with King : Charles King, chronicler of the old army. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Sand Creek Massacre: a documentary history. New York: Sol Lewis, 1973

Secoy, Frank Raymond. Changing military patterns on the Great Plains (17th century through early 19th centrury). Locust Valley NY : J.J. Augustin, [1953].

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Smith, Sherry Lynn. The View from Officers’ row: Army perceptions of western Indians. Tucson : University of Arizona Press, 1990.

Soldier and brave; Indian and military affairs in the Trans-Mississippi west, including a guide to historic sites and landmarks. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.

Stallard, Patricia Y. Glittering misery : dependents of the Indian Fighting Army. San Rafael, CA : Presidio Press, 1978.  

Thompson, Neil Baird. Crazy Horse called them walk-a-heaps : the story of the foot soldier in the prairie Indian Wars. Saint Cloud, MN : North Star Press, 1979.  

Tobriand, Philippe Regis Denis de Keredern. Vie militaire dans le Dakota; notes et souvenirs (1867-1969). Paris: H. Champion, 1926.

Utley, Robert Marshall. Cavalier in buckskin : George Armstrong Custer and the western military. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

---------. The contribution of the frontier to the American military tradition. [Colorado Springs] : U.S. Air Force Academy, 1977.

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Waddel, William Sterling. The military relations between the Sioux Indians and the United States government in Dakota Territory, 1860-1891. University of South Dakota thesis, 1931

Wagner, Glendolin Damon. Old Neutriment. Boston : Ruth Hill, [1934].

White, Virgil D. Index to pension applications for Indian Wars service between 1817 and 1898. Waynesboro, TN : National Historical Pub. Co., 1997.

Wilkert, James. After Little Bighorn : 1876 campaign rosters. La Mirada, CA : J. Willert, 1985.

Wooster, Robert. The military and United State Indian policy, 1865-1903. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, [1995].

Maps   
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Title of the map; date, subject, map identification.

Area of Operation of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, December 1890. Messiah War (#238)

Cheyenne River Events, December 1890. Messiah War (#237)

Custer’s Battlefield, 1876. (#3051)

Custer Battlefield, 1908. Custer Battlefield in Montana (MD82)

Indian Scare of February 1879. Fort Meade, Rapid City to Cheyenne River. Shoun Fight, Cavalry Expedition. (#1536)

Indian Treaties, 1851-1878, undated. Forts, Treaties, Little Big Horn Battle. (#1717)

Map of Sioux of Dakotah Country, 1700 to 1950, undated. Tribes, facts, Indian Agencies, Battles. (#2180)

Map of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers, 1876. Military Expeditions; fights with Indians inclusive 1855-1890. (#1953, 1976-1990)

Minnesota and Dakota, Route of Northwestern Indian Expedition, D.L. Kingsbury, 1864.  MF 495 (1846 MF)

North and South Dakota Land to Open by Treaty of 1889, 1890. MF 495 (1846 MF)

Proposed National Cemetery of Custer’s Battlefield, 1885. Little Big Horn, battlefield. (MD 82)

Route of 1st Dragoons in Indian Country, 1844. MF 495 (1846 MF)

Route of Custer Expedition, Rand McNally & Co., 1875.  MF 495 (1846 MF)

Route of Sioux Expedition, Brig. Gen. H.H. Sibley, 1863.  MF 495 (1846 MF)

Scene of Massacres and Depredations committed by Minnesota Annuity Sioux Indians, 1862-1863. MF 4 95 (1846 MF)

The Military in South Dakota, 1823-1944. Expedition routes, battles with Indians. (#2082)

Western South Dakota at the time of Messiah War, undated. (#189)

Vertical Files 

Battle of Crow Buttes
Black Hills Treaty
Camp Clarke Bridge, NE
Camp Collier (Red Canyon Post)
Camp Crook
Camp Sheridan
Camp Sturgis
Camp Whitney
Crooks “Horse Meat” March
Custer Battlefield & historic Highway
Custer, George A.
Dull Knife’s raid, 1878
Indian Battles
War of the Outbreak


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