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archaeology

Resources and Fees


The Archaeological Research Center has many resources available to researchers. This page serves as a general guide to what we have available online. Several documents are available in pdf format. Acrobat Reader, a pdf viewer, can be obtained free from Adobe.

Publications
Special Publications in Archaeology
Special Publications in Archaeology is an online series of reports designed to provide information on South Dakota archaeology to the public. All the reports are available as pdf (portable document format) files. To read them, you will need a pdf viewer such as Adobe's Acrobat Reader. With the reader, you can view, download, or print the file. The printed version of the pdf file is how the report would appear if published as a hardcopy report series.

A Surface Collection from Northwestern South Dakota by Norman G. Flaigg. In his years growing up on a ranch in South Dakota, Norman Flaigg built up a sizeable collection of artifacts. Unlike many collectors, he carefully documented his collection. This report culminates a lifelong interest in the history of the land. It is available as a pdf file (5.27MB).


Excavations at the Winter Site and at Hartford Beach Village 1980-1981 (Second Edition) by James K. Haug. This report describes excavations at two sites in northeastern South Dakota. The Winter site is a multicomponent occupation on Coteau Lake. Hartford Beach Village is a fortified prehistoric site situated on the bluffs above Big Stone Lake. It is available as a pdf file (12.5MB).

Research Reports
The Research Report series presents the results of excavations and other research in South Dakota archaeology. Hardcopy versions are available for sale, and pdf versions are online for those who wish to download them. To read them, you will need a pdf viewer such as Adobe's Acrobat Reader. With the reader, you can view, download, or print the file. Pdf files can be very large, so a high-bandwidth internet connection is recommended.

rr01 cover Research Report No. 1
Mountain Meadow Sites in the Northern Black Hills

by: Linea Sundstrom, Renee Boen, Steve Keller, and Jane Watts (with an appendix by James E. Martin)

Published: 2002

Abstract: Mitigative data recovery efforts focused on three high-altitude meadow sites in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. Site 39LA314 is an undated, high-density lithic knapping station. The site was devoted to the production of biface platforms and contained significant amounts of imported lithic raw material from areas to the west of the Black Hills. Site 39LA319 is a late Paleoindian (Plano) special activity site used for prehunt weapon preparation and posthunt tools manufacture and repair, secondary butchering, and hide working. Site 39LA117 contained two cultural horizons: an in situ hunt-related base camp with mixed Middle and Late Archaic components, and a redeposited late Paleoindian to Early Archaic cultural horizon representing a small, special activity site used for initial butchering. These sites are located on an older high terrace surface and within a lower, more recent terrace surface. A pre-Altithermal dry period and a mid-Altithermal wet period may be suggested by terrace formation in the project area.

Details: Softcover, xvi+289 pages. US$15.00. It is also available as a pdf file (27.2M).

To purchase, contact the Archaeological Research Center by emailing or by phone at 1-605-394-1936.



rr02 cover Research Report No. 2
The Blaine Site

by: Linea Sundstrom, Ned Hanenberger, James Donohue, Grant Smith, Michael McFaul, Karen Lynn Traugh, Bruce Potter, and Jane Watts

Published: 2008

Abstract: The Archaeological Research Center undertook mitigative excavations at the Blaine site, 39CU1144, in western Custer County, South Dakota. The site is in the Red Valley physiographic zone of the Black Hills. The site contained three components. Component A comprised four stone circle features (tipi rings) and two cairns exposed on the surface, as well as a small assemblage of lithic tools, ceramics, and lithic debitage on or near the surface. This component dates to the Late Prehistoric and late Late Archaic periods, based on diagnostic artifacts. It represents a few short-term transient camps at which hide working, tool repair, and general group maintenance activities took place. Component B dates to the Middle and Late Archaic periods, based on diagnostic artifacts and a series of radiocarbon dates. This component represents a residential camp at which biface reduction, tool repair, and group maintenance were primary activities. Component C dates to the Early Archaic period, based on two radiocarbon dates (6940 and 5870 B.P.). This component represents a periodically reoccupied residential camp at which the processing of fibrous material such as roots or wood, lithic tool production and repair, and group maintenance apparently were principal activities. Lithic materials suggest weak ties to the west (Powder River country) during the Late Prehistoric. Weak ties to the east (Missouri River) are indicated for the Late Archaic, while the Middle and Early Archaic components appear to represent wholly localized cultures. The site demonstrates that Early Archaic cultural material and Altithermal age depositional features are preserved in portions of the southwestern Black Hills. Terrace formation in the project area is hypothesized to correspond in part to a regional alluvial terrace sequence developed by Leopold and Miller (1954).

Details: This report is available as a pdf file (34.9M) only.



rr03 v1 cover Research Report No. 3
The 1997–2001 Excavations at Fort Pierre Chouteau
Volume 1: The Excavations

by: Mike Fosha

Published: 2010

Fort Pierre Chouteau was established in 1832 by the American Fur Company on the Missouri River near the center of what is now South Dakota. The fort served as one of the major trading posts in the region for more than 20 years. In 1855, it was purchased by the U.S. Army as part of General Harney's expedition to the Plains. Shortly after that it was abandoned, and its dismantled parts were sent downriver to the newly established Fort Randall. The area around the fort languished almost forgotten until the 1980s when a team of volunteers under the direction of Steven Ruple of the S.D. State Historical Preservation Center conducted exploratory excavations. In 1997, teams of archaeologists and volunteers, under the overall direction of Michael Fosha of the South Dakota State Historical Society, returned for 5 summer excavation sessions. Their efforts were focused on determining how much of the fort had survived a century and a half of flooding and agriculture and to map its extent. This report details the results of the field work.

Details: This report is available as a pdf file (35.2M) for the time being.

rr03  v2 cover Research Report No. 3
The 1997–2001 Excavations at Fort Pierre Chouteau
Volume 2: Material Culture

edited by: Michael Fosha and James K. Haug

Published: 2010

Many thousands of artifacts were collected by the archaeologists who excavated at Fort Pierre Chouteau over several seasons. These were broken down into several categories for the purpose of analysis; each set was turned over to a specialist for detailed examination and description. Their reports are collected in this volume, including chapters on trade beads, firearms, buttons and fasteners, glassware, nails and hardware, ceramic pipes, pre-fort artifacts, and toothpicks.

Details: This report is available as a pdf file (53.7M) for the time being.

Educational Series in Archaeology
The Educational Series were a set of brief documents about South Dakota archaeology developed in the 1970s by the Archaeology Laboratory of the University of South Dakota under a grant from the National Park Service. The series has been out of print some time, but scanned copies are being made available here. To read them, you will need a pdf viewer such as Adobe's Acrobat Reader.

No. 1: Archaeology, Studying the Past for the Future
No. 2: The First South Dakotans
No. 3: Archaic Foragers
No. 4: Woodland Villagers
No. 5: Initial Middle Missouri Gardeners: Great Oasis
No. 6: Initial Middle Missouri Gardeners: Innovations and Migrations
No. 7: Central Plains Tradition Immigrants
No. 8: Initial Coalescent: A Blending of Cultures
No. 9: Developing the Cultural Mosaic: 1400–1700 A.D.
Young People's Guide to South Dakota Archaeology

Repository Guidelines and Requirements
The State Historic Preservation Office requires that copies of all archaeological reports done in South Dakota under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act be submitted to the Archaeological Research Center. This insures that the state has a complete set of base data for researchers and cultural resource managers. We have compiled a guideline, Submitting Report Copies to the Archaeological Research Center, as an aid in preparing reports for submission. A new document, using Google Earth for site forms is also available to assist users in preparing map data for site forms.

Many researchers and institutions make use of the Center's repository to store collections and records. The Center staff has prepared Requirements for Submitting a Collection to the State Archaeological Research Center. It contains useful information on artifact conservation, cataloging, storage, and recordation methods.
Fees for Data Access and Services
The 2009 SD legislature directed that new fees be implemented for some of the Center's services and that existing fees be brought into line with costs. To that end, new regulation were adopted to implement those changes. They took effect January 1, 2010. These include:

    - Box storage fees. Fees to store artifact collections remains unchanged. These are based on cubic feet. Processing fees to handle incompletely prepared collections have gone up.

    - Collection maintenance fee. There is now an annual collection maintenance fee, based on cubic feet of storage.

    - Curation agreements. There is now a fee to set up a curation agreement with the Archaeological Research Center.

    - Loan processing. A set of rates was established to process collection loans.

    - Archaeological permits. A new fee was set up to obtain an archaeological permit under the requirements of SDCL 1-20 or SDCL 34-27.

    - ARMS database fees. A user fee was established to allow clients access to data housed at the Archaeological Research Center. This fee allows users to use in-house databases, records, GIS resources, and the online ARMS database. Users must fill out a user agreement to accompany the application for an account.

    - Record searches. The fee for staff members to conduct records searches for clients was adjusted.

    - Other staff assistance. The hourly fee for other staff assistance was adjusted.

    - Other fees. Fees were added or adjusted for providing hard copy maps or storage media.


Details on the fee structure are available from regulations posted by the legislature.
Permits
State law (SDCL 1-20) requires that archaeological work on state land must be done under a permit from the state archaeologist. The application form is available for download in either pdf or MS Word format.
Software

Cataloging Software

Artifact collections at the Archaeological Research Center are cataloged using the HACS (Hierarchical Artifact Catalog System) utility. The catalog software is available in several formats (download by right clicking and selecting 'save as...' or its equivalent, then unzip the file if necessary):
MS Office 2010 and Windows 7 or later

Before you use it, be sure to clear the 'read only' box in the file properties. Read the instructions.

If the cataloging is being done for submission to the ARC repository, each set of data created by the utility should be named for the accession number (e.g. '99-0133.mdb', '03-0023.mdb'). Needless to say, only one accession should be used per file. The HACS program stores each catalog as a seperate database. It is able to open any older HACS catalog file or create new ones as needed.

Photos may be cataloged using the Photo utility, a database in MS Access 2000 format. Just right click and select 'save as...' or its equivalent. Unzip the downloaded file.

Site Form Software

The Archaeological Research Center Field Site Form is the manual used to record or update archaeological site information. It is available for download as a pdf file. The site form is available in two formats (right click and select 'save as...' or its equivalent, then unzip the downloaded file if necessary):
MS Access 2000
MS Access 2010
A pdf version is available for those who don't have MS Access. An additional form page form for a map form and a continuation form are also available.

Site data can be entered, printed, modified, and exported.
Note: There have been problems with the Access versions of the site form software with the recent release of Windows 7 and MS Access 2010. Most notably, attempting to save a site form print preview as a Word document will terminate MS Access 2010 without warning (saving as a pdf file will work, though). Until these issues are resolved, be aware that you download and use these files at your own risk.

Notes on Downloading the Software

As noted above, the zipped MS Access applications can be downloaded by right-clicking on the link and selecting "save target as..." or "save link as..." or whatever your browser presents you with. Doing so will present you with a window where you choose where to save the file. Usually the default download directory is fine—just be sure you know where it is. After the zip file is saved, open the folder where you put it. Right-click on it and see if you have an "Extract All..." option. If so, select that. It will create a folder with the same name as the zip file; inside that you'll find the unzipped version of the MS Access application. The other method is simply to double-click the zipped file, which will open a window showing the unzipped file. Just drag that to wherever you want to place the file.

As a final step, right-click on the MS Access application and select "properties." Make sure that the little box labeled "Read-only" is not checked.

Historic Preservation Office Guidelines
South Dakota Guidelines for Compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act and South Dakota Codified Law 1-19A-11.1, a publication of the South Dakota State Historical Society's State Historic Preservation Office, is available here.

The Archaeological Regions map
The Archaeological Regions map for the State Plan is now available for download as an ArcView shapefile. Get it here. It is also available as a 1024x768 jpeg image, suitable for framing.


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